World’s Biggest Economies by 2075: A Projection by Goldman Sachs Research

A Report on the Largest Economies by 2075: Goldman Sachs research predicts major shifts in global economic power by 2075.

According to predictions made by the IMF and Goldman Sachs, the top 10 economies by 2075 are likely to experience some significant changes. China is projected to lead the list with a GDP of $57 trillion, followed by India at $52.5 trillion and the US at $51.5 trillion. Other countries that made the list include Indonesia, Nigeria, Brazil, Germany, the UK, Japan, and Russia. These estimates indicate potential shifts in global economic power in the coming decades.

Goldman Sachs Research released its initial long-term projections for the economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRICS) almost two decades ago. In 2011, they expanded these estimates to include more countries, and their latest version now covers 104 nations. The projections extend from today to 2075 and have been developed by our team of economists.

Let’s have a look at the projections of the top 10 largest economies by 2050 and then let’s talk about the largest economies by 2075.

Top 10 Economies by 2050

The following table shows the projected top economies in the world for 2050. All figures represent real GDP projections, based on 2021 USD.

RankCountryReal GDP in 2050 (USD trillions)
1🇨🇳 China$41.9
2🇺🇸 US$37.2
3🇮🇳 India$22.2
4🇮🇩 Indonesia$6.3
5🇩🇪 Germany$6.2
6🇯🇵 Japan$6.0
7🇬🇧 UK$5.2
8🇧🇷 Brazil$4.9
9🇫🇷 France$4.6
10🇷🇺 Russia$4.5

List of Largest Economies by 2075

RankCountryReal GDP in 2050 (USD trillions)
1🇨🇳 China$57
2🇮🇳 India$52.5
3🇺🇸 US$51.5
4🇮🇩 Indonesia$13.7
🇳🇬 Nigeria
6 🇵🇰 Pakistan$12.3
7🇬🇧 Egypt$10.4
8🇧🇷 Brazil$8.7
9🇩🇪 Germany$8.1
10🇷🇺 Mexico$7.6

Details: The Top 10 Economies by 2075

1. China: $57 trillion

  • Growth Drivers: Continued technological innovation, a shift to a consumer-driven economy, and large-scale infrastructure projects.
  • Challenges: Aging population, environmental concerns, and the need for political and economic reforms.

2. India: $52.5 trillion

  • Growth Drivers: Demographic dividend with a young workforce, advancements in technology and digital infrastructure, and increasing foreign investment.
  • Challenges: Infrastructure development, addressing income inequality, and reforming education and healthcare systems.

3. United States: $51.5 trillion

  • Growth Drivers: Technological leadership, strong consumer market, and innovative capabilities in various sectors.
  • Challenges: Aging population, political polarization, and adapting to changing global trade dynamics.

4. Indonesia: $13.7 Trillion

  • Growth Drivers: Strategic location for trade, growing middle class, and a focus on infrastructure and manufacturing.
  • Challenges: Political stability, a lot of environmental issues, and improving education and healthcare.

5. Nigeria: $13.1 trillion

  • Growth Drivers: Large and young population, potential in agriculture and energy sectors, and emerging technology sector.
  • Challenges: Political instability, infrastructure deficits, and diversifying economy beyond oil.

6. Pakistan: $12.3 trillion

  • Growth Drivers: Youthful population, potential in manufacturing and services, and strategic geographic location.
  • Challenges: Political stability, economic reforms, and addressing education and healthcare needs.

7. Egypt: $10.4 trillion

  • Growth Drivers: Strategic location, growing service sector, and government reforms in infrastructure and energy.
  • Challenges: Political stability, water resource management, and diversifying the economy.

8. Brazil: $8.7 trillion

  • Growth Drivers: Rich natural resources, agricultural and energy sectors, and a large internal market.
  • Challenges: Political and economic stability, environmental concerns, and improving education and infrastructure.

9. Germany: $8.1 trillion

  • Growth Drivers: Strong industrial base, technological innovation, and robust export sector.
  • Challenges: Demographic trends, energy transition, and maintaining its technological edge.

10. Mexico: $7.6 trillion

  • Growth Drivers: manufacturing and service sectors, trade agreements, and proximity to the U.S. market.
  • Challenges: Political stability, addressing crime and corruption, and economic inequality.

Final Words

Goldman Sachs’ projection for 2075 highlights a world where economic power is more evenly distributed globally, with emerging economies playing increasingly prominent roles.

This shift underscores the importance of economic reforms, technological advancement, and demographic factors in shaping the future global economic landscape. The rise of countries like India, Indonesia, and Nigeria, alongside the sustained economic influence of nations like the U.S., China, and Germany, paints a diverse and dynamic picture of the world economy in the latter half of the 21st century.

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